Chromatin immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing of SVCV-infected zebrafish reveals novel epigenetic histone methylation patterns involved in antiviral immune response

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018 Nov;82:514-521. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.08.056. Epub 2018 Aug 29.


Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) have been used to assess histone methylation (epigenetic modification) dynamics within the internal organs of zebrafish after spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. Our results show H3K4me3 up-methylation in gene promoters associated with innate immune response during the first 5 days after SVCV infection. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis confirmed up-methylation in 218 genes in the "immune system process" category. In particular, the promoters of interferon (ifn), interferon stimulated genes (isg), Toll-like receptors (tlr) and c-reactive protein (crp) multi gene sets were marked with the permissive H3K4 methylation. Higher histone 3 methylation was associated with higher transcription levels of the corresponding genes. Therefore, the evidence presented here suggests that transcriptional regulation at the promoter level of key immune genes of the interferon signaling pathway and c-reactive proteins genes can be modulated by epigenetic modification of histones. This study emphasizes the importance of epigenetic control in the response of zebrafish to SVCV infection.

Keywords: ChIP-seq; Histone methylation; Innate immunity; SVCV; Zebrafish.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatin Immunoprecipitation / veterinary
  • Epigenesis, Genetic*
  • Fish Diseases / immunology*
  • Fish Diseases / virology
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing / veterinary
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Methylation
  • Rhabdoviridae / physiology
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections / immunology
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections / virology
  • Zebrafish / immunology*
  • Zebrafish / metabolism*


  • Histones

Supplementary concepts

  • Carp sprivivirus