Novel ethosomal gel of clove oil for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2019 Jun;18(3):862-869. doi: 10.1111/jocd.12765. Epub 2018 Aug 31.


Background: Dual-release mechanism of ethosomal gels (ie, ethosomes and gel) makes them as versatile drug delivery systems for topical applications. Clove oil is obtained from the clove buds exhibited broad antifungal and antibacterial activity. Cutaneous candidiasis is the infection caused by Candida albicans or other Candida species.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to prepare ethosomal gel of clove oil and evaluate its effectiveness in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis.

Methods: Ethosomes of clove oil was formulated by using varying concentrations of soyaphosphotidyl choline and ethanol, and later, it was incorporated into carbapol 974 base gels to form ethosomal gel. The prepared ethosomal gels were also evaluated for spreadability, drug release studies, ex vivo permeation study, and antifungal activity.

Results: The optimized formulation did not cause any irritation to the skin since the pH of formulation was in the pH range of skin. The ethosomal gel showed satisfactory antifungal activity against the fungus C. albicans compared to pure clove oil.

Conclusions: The results showed that developed formulation could be promising one in the topical delivery of clove oil for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis.

Keywords: clove oil; ethosomal gel; ethosomes; soyaphosphotidyl choline.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Animals
  • Candida albicans / drug effects*
  • Candidiasis, Cutaneous / drug therapy*
  • Candidiasis, Cutaneous / microbiology
  • Clove Oil / administration & dosage*
  • Clove Oil / adverse effects
  • Clove Oil / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Drug Liberation
  • Erythema / chemically induced
  • Erythema / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Gels
  • Liposomes
  • Male
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Rats
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin Absorption / drug effects


  • Clove Oil
  • Gels
  • Liposomes