Predictors of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Placement in Acute Ischemic Stroke

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Nov;27(11):3200-3207. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.07.022. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Abstract

Background: Dysphagia is a common complication of stroke and can have a lasting impact on morbidity and mortality; yet there are no standards to guide dysphagia management in stroke patients. We assessed predictors of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement in an ischemic stroke cohort and sought to determine the utility of an objective scale in predicting PEG placement in a high-risk sub-set.

Methods: Consecutive cases of ischemic stroke were retrospectively, identified and demographic and clinical variables were collected. Penetration-Aspiration (PAS) scores (1-2 normal; 3-5 penetration; 6-8 aspiration) were calculated for patients undergoing Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) or Modified Barium Swallowing Studies (MBSS). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of PEG placement.

Results: Among 724 patients, 131 underwent PEG placement. In univariate analysis of the overall cohort, sex, age, insured payer status, arrival National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), NIHSS level of consciousness severity, NIHSS dysarthria severity, diabetes mellitus, and prior International Conference for Harmonization (ICH) were all significantly associated with PEG placement. Among 197 high-risk patients undergoing FEES or MBSS, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that PAS scores 6-8 versus 1-2 (odds ratio [OR] 13.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.58, 38.2), PAS score 3-5 versus 1.2 (OR 33.8; 95% CI 11.6, 98.3), Hispanic race (OR, 5.73; 95% CI 1.82, 18.0), male sex (OR, 2.59; 95% CI 1.05, 6.34), and arrival NIHSS (OR, 1.11; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18) were associated with PEG placement.

Conclusions: Use of an objective dysphagia scale simplified the prediction model among acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing instrumental assessments of dysphagia with FEES or MBSS. Male sex and Hispanic race were also significantly associated with PEG placement in this analysis. These findings support the need for rigorously designed prospective studies to assess biological and social factors that influence PEG placement and to determine, how to best evaluate and manage patients with dysphagia.

Keywords: Dysphagia; ischemic stroke; penetration aspiration scale; percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube; recovery; rehabilitation; swallow..

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Brain Ischemia / complications*
  • Brain Ischemia / diagnosis
  • Brain Ischemia / physiopathology
  • Decision Support Techniques
  • Deglutition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Deglutition Disorders / etiology
  • Deglutition Disorders / physiopathology
  • Deglutition Disorders / therapy*
  • Deglutition*
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal*
  • Female
  • Gastrostomy / methods*
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Factors
  • Stroke / complications*
  • Stroke / diagnosis
  • Stroke / physiopathology
  • Treatment Outcome