Restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in pigs were analyzed using 18 enzymes which recognize six nucleotides and 1 four-nucleotide-recognizing enzyme. Pigs including Taiwan native breeds and miniature strains maintained in Japan were examined in this study; four commercial breeds of pigs and Japanese wild boars have been investigated earlier [Watanabe, T., et al. (1985). Biochem. Genet. 23:105]. mtDNA polymorphisms were observed in the cleavage patterns of five restriction enzymes, Bg1II, EcoRV, ScaI, StuI, and TaqI. The results support the previous hypothesis that pigs must be derived from two different maternal origins, European and Asian wild boars, and that a breed, Large White, arises from both European and Asian pigs. Two HindIII cleavage fragments were cloned into the HindIII site of M13mp10 and were partially sequenced by the dideoxynucleotide-chain termination method. Furthermore, DraI and StuI cleavage sites were newly determined on the restriction endonuclease map. On the basis of these results, the restriction endonuclease cleavage map of pig mtDNA was rewritten. Comparing sequence data of pig mtDNA at 237 positions with those of cow, human, mouse, and rat mtDNA, the sequence difference, silent and replacement changes, and transitions and transversions among mammalian species were estimated. The relationships among them are discussed.