Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp1β and nsp11 antagonize the antiviral activity of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase via lysosomal degradation

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Sep;223:134-143. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.08.012. Epub 2018 Aug 9.


Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an immunosuppressive pathogen which has been recognized to modulate the host interferon (IFN) systems. Cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25 H) is an important interferon-stimulated gene (ISG)-encoded polytopic membrane protein that significantly inhibits the replication of many viruses. In the current study, we showed that PRRSV infection induced the down-regulation of the endogenous CH25H in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and then discovered that the nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β and nsp11 of PRRSV could mediate the reduction of porcine CH25H d in HEK 293FT cells. Next, the amino acids including His-159 in nsp1β, and His-129, His-144 and Lys-173 in nsp11 were determined to play crucial roles in the reduction of CH25H. Furthermore, we confirmed that the nsp1β and nsp11 mediated the degradation of CH25H by lysosomal pathway in HEK 293FT cells. Finally, it was demonstrated that the anti-PRRSV activity of CH25H could be antagonized by nsp1β and nsp11 in MARC-145 cells. Our findings suggest a manner of antagonizing the antiviral activity of CH25H by PRRSV, and provide novel insight into the understanding of PRRSV's ability of escaping the innate immunity of host.

Keywords: Cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (CH25H); Degradation; Lysosomal pathway; Nonstructural protein (nsp) 1β; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV); nsp11.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Endoribonucleases
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral*
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Lysosomes / metabolism
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome / virology*
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / genetics
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / isolation & purification
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / physiology*
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / genetics
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / metabolism*
  • Swine
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins / metabolism*


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Viral Nonstructural Proteins
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • cholesterol 25-hydroxylase
  • Endoribonucleases
  • nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease