Crystallographic evidence for unexpected selective tyrosine hydroxylations in an aerated achiral Ru-papain conjugate

Metallomics. 2018 Oct 17;10(10):1452-1459. doi: 10.1039/c8mt00160j. Epub 2018 Sep 3.


The X-ray structure of an aerated achiral Ru-papain conjugate has revealed the hydroxylation of two tyrosine residues found near the ruthenium ion. The most likely mechanism involves a ruthenium-bound superoxide as the reactive species responsible for the first hydroxylation and the resulting high valent Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O species for the second one.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Hydroxylation
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Structure
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Papain / chemistry*
  • Papain / metabolism*
  • Protein Conformation
  • Ruthenium / chemistry*
  • Ruthenium / metabolism*
  • Superoxides / chemistry*
  • Tyrosine / chemistry*


  • Superoxides
  • Tyrosine
  • Ruthenium
  • Papain