[Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome. Case report]

Rev Alerg Mex. Jul-Sep 2018;65(3):310-315. doi: 10.29262/ram.v65i3.336.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: Rhinitis is the leading cause for consultation in the allergy department. It consists in chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa. Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome is characterized by chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa (> 20% of eosinophils in nasal cytology) in the absence of demonstrable allergy (negative in vivo and in vitro tests); often it is accompanied by other sinonasal conditions (nasal polyposis, chronic rhinosinusitis), and it constitutes a risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea.

Case report: Seven-year old girl with rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, nasopalatine itching, and severe sneezing that limited sleep and school activities. This condition had a seasonal pattern, with important blood (800 eosinophils/μL) and nasal (30%) eosinophilia and absence of demonstrable allergy (negative skin tests, negative specific nasal challenge tests); the non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome diagnosis was verified.

Conclusions: Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome is considered to be a highly underdiagnosed disease owing to the lack of in vivo nasal tests' performance; to this underestimation, incorrect nasal etiology and lack of local in vivo tests (nasal specific IgE) are added, which warrants a high degree of diagnostic suspicion by the specialist physician.

Antecedentes: La rinitis es la primera causa de consulta en el servicio de alergia. Se trata de una inflamación crónica de la mucosa nasal. La rinitis no alérgica con síndrome eosinofílico se caracteriza por eosinofilia crónica (> 20 % de eosinófilos en citología nasal) sin que pueda comprobarse la existencia de alergia (pruebas in vivo e in vitro negativas); frecuentemente se acompaña de otras enfermedades sinonasales (poliposis nasal, rinosinusitis crónica) y constituye un factor de riesgo para desarrollar apnea obstructiva del sueño. Caso clínico: Niña de siete años de edad con rinorrea, obstrucción nasal, prurito nasopalatino y estornudos de intensidad severa que limitaban sueño y actividades escolares, de patrón estacional con importante eosinofilia sanguínea (800 eosinófilos/μL) y nasal (30 %), sin alergia demostrable (pruebas cutáneas negativas y pruebas de provocación nasal específicas negativas); se comprobó el diagnóstico de rinitis no alérgica con síndrome eosinofílico. Conclusiones: La rinitis no alérgica con síndrome eosinofílico se considera una enfermedad altamente infradiagnosticada debido a la falta de realización de pruebas nasales in vivo. A la infravaloración se suma la incorrecta etiología nasal y la inexistencia de pruebas in vitro locales (IgE nasal específica), por lo que amerita un alto grado de sospecha diagnóstica por parte del médico especialista.

Keywords: Nasal cytology; Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Eosinophilia / complications*
  • Eosinophilia / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Rhinitis / complications*
  • Rhinitis / diagnosis
  • Syndrome