The CKD plasma lipidome varies with disease severity and outcome

J Clin Lipidol. Jan-Feb 2019;13(1):176-185.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2018.07.010. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Abstract

Background: Various alterations in lipid metabolism have been observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Objectives: To determine the levels of lipid species in plasma from CKD and hemodialysis (HD) patients and test their association with CKD severity and patient outcome.

Methods: Seventy-seven patients with CKD stage 2 to HD were grouped into classes of CKD severity at baseline and followed-up for 3.5 years for the occurrence of transition to HD or death (combined outcome). Plasma levels of phosphatidylcholines (PCs), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), sphingomyelins (SMs), and fatty acids were analyzed by flow-injection analysis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Kruskal Wallis rank tests and Cox regressions were used to analyze the association of lipids with CKD severity and the risk of combined outcome, respectively.

Results: The plasma level of PCs, LPCs, and SMs was decreased in HD patients compared with nondialyzed CKD patients (all P < .05), whereas esterified and/or nonesterified fatty acids level did not change. Thirty-four lipids displayed significantly lower abundance in plasma of HD patients, whereas elaidic acid (C18:1ω9t) level was increased (P < .001). The total amount of LPCs and individual LPCs were associated with better outcome (P < .05). In particular, LPC 18:2 and LPC 20:3 were statistically associated with outcome in adjusted models (P < .05).

Discussion: In HD patients, a reduction in plasma lipids is observed. Some of the alterations, namely reduced LPCs, were associated with the risk of adverse outcome. These changes could be related to metabolic dysfunctions.

Keywords: Fatty acid; Lipidomics; Lysophospholipid; Phospholipid; Renal disease; Sphingomyelin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phosphatidylcholines / metabolism*
  • Primary Prevention
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / metabolism*

Substances

  • Phosphatidylcholines