Sanal-Cell Cycle and Primo Vascular System: Regeneration via Sanals

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1072:413-418. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91287-5_66.


The Primo Vascular System (PVS) is new to most scientists despite that it was discovered in the 1960s by Bonghan Kim. Out of the many physiological functions reported, one of the most important PVS functions appears to be its role in the regeneration via a small (~1 μm) subcellular body called 'sanal.' According to Kim, a cell generates multiple sanals and the sanals arriving at the primo nodes (PNs) via primo vessels (PV) eventually produce new cells, by way of the 'Sanal-Cell Cycle.' Sanals express stem cell biomarkers. Appropriately differentiated sanals have been shown to perform non-marrow hematopoiesis and repair damaged tissues. However, many questions on sanals still remain: e.g., how sanals reside in the PN; whether sanals are a new type of stem cells; and how exactly sanals produce cells and/or tissue. Our preliminary studies show that sanals reside inside the sinus formed by sub-PVs in the PNs; and in the PNs, there are more than one form of sanal-originated bodies of various sizes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Vessels / cytology*
  • Cardiovascular System / cytology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Stem Cells / cytology*