Candida spp., especially Candida albicans, is one of the main colonisers of the oral cavity. Due to its ability to form biofilms, it can be implicated in dental caries, periodontal disease and denture stomatitis. Microbial cells in biofilms are minimally impacted by conventional drugs. The aim of this study was to find new substances able to inhibit the adhesion of Candida spp. in order to prevent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. This study focused on the red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit, known for its richness in potentially antimicrobial tannins. Extraction with a polarity gradient was performed on acetone extracts from frozen ripe and unripe fruits, resulting in eight extracts. The antifungal and anti-adhesion effects of the extracts were determined using broth microdilution and XTT methods, respectively, against C. albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis strains. Interestingly, four extracts (hexane and ethyl acetate) displayed anti-adhesion activity against C. albicans at low concentrations [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) 15.6-62.5 µg/mL]. Bioassay-guided fractionation by chromatographic methods of the most active extract obtained from ripe fruit (ethyl acetate extract) led to two subfractions enriched in anti-adhesion compounds, identified by mass spectrometry analysis as hydrolysable and condensed tannins. Their activities were dose-dependent with maximum inhibition at 80% (IC50 = 25 µg/mL and 12.5 µg/mL). Regarding antifungal activity, no extract was active against planktonic cells of the tested strains. This work highlights for the first time the potential of raspberries to prevent oral C. albicans biofilms.
Keywords: Anti-adhesion; Antifungal; Biofilm; Candida; Raspberry; Tannins.
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