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. 2018 Nov;61:24-32.
doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.07.006. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Maternal Diet-Induced Obesity During Suckling Period Programs Offspring Obese Phenotype and Hypothalamic Leptin/Insulin Resistance

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Maternal Diet-Induced Obesity During Suckling Period Programs Offspring Obese Phenotype and Hypothalamic Leptin/Insulin Resistance

Rodrigo Mello Gomes et al. J Nutr Biochem. .

Abstract

During the early post-natal period, offspring are vulnerable to environmental insults, such as nutritional and hormonal changes, which increase risk to develop metabolic diseases later in life. Our aim was to understand whether maternal obesity during lactation programs offspring to metabolic syndrome and obese phenotype, in addition we aimed to assess the peripheral glucose metabolism and hypothalamic leptin/insulin signaling pathways. At delivery, female Wistar rats were randomly divided in two groups: Control group (CO), mothers fed a standard rodent chow (Nuvilab); and Diet-induced obesity group (DIO), mothers who had free access to a diet performed with 33% ground standard rodent chow, 33% sweetened condensed milk (Nestlé), 7% sucrose and 27% water. Maternal treatment was performed throughout suckling period. All offspring received standard rodent chow from weaning until 91-day-old. DIO dams presented increased total body fat and insulin resistance. Consequently, the breast milk from obese dams had altered composition. At 91-day-old, DIO offspring had overweight, hyperphagia and higher adiposity. Furthermore, DIO animals had hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, they also showed pancreatic islet hypertrophy and increased pancreatic β-cell proliferation. Finally, DIO offspring showed low ObRb, JAK2, STAT-3, IRβ, PI3K and Akt levels, suggesting leptin and insulin hypothalamic resistance, associated with increased of hypothalamic NPY level and decreased of POMC. Maternal obesity during lactation malprograms rat offspring to develop obesity that is associated with impairment of melanocortin system. Indeed, rat offspring displayed glucose dyshomeostasis and both peripheral and central insulin resistance.

Keywords: Glucose homeostasis; Hypothalamus; Insulin; Leptin; Maternal obesity; Metabolic programming.

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