Estrogen receptor α (ER) is the major driver of ∼75% of breast cancers, and multiple ER targeting drugs are routinely used clinically to treat patients with ER+ breast cancer. However, many patients relapse on these targeted therapies and ultimately develop metastatic and incurable disease, and understanding the mechanisms leading to drug resistance is consequently of utmost importance. It is now clear that, in addition to estrogens, ER function is modulated by other steroid receptors and multiple signaling pathways (e.g., growth factor and cytokine signaling), and many of these pathways affect drug resistance and patient outcome. Here, we review the mechanisms through which these pathways impact ER function and drug resistance as well as discuss the clinical implications.
Keywords: breast cancer; cross-talk; cytokines; estrogen receptor; growth factors.
© 2018 Siersbæk et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.