Purpose: To report the clinical course and multimodal imaging features of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) complicated by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment or photodynamic therapy (PDT).
Methods: Observational case series. Retrospective analysis of patients presenting to different institutions with evidence of AZOOR and neovascular lesions. Diagnosis of AZOOR was made on the basis of clinical presentation and multimodal imaging. All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation and multimodal retinal imaging, including color fundus photos, fundus autofluorescence, fundus fluorescein angiography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Results: Four patients (three males, mean age 53.5 years) were included in the study. Mean follow-up was 5.1 years. Presentation of AZOOR was unilateral in two patients and bilateral in the remainder two patients. One of the patients presenting with unilateral AZOOR developed zonal lesions in the fellow eye during follow-up. All patients presented with unilateral type 2 (subretinal) CNV. Three patients underwent intravitreal anti-VEGF injections and one patient underwent a single PDT. Multimodal retinal imaging showed zonal or multizonal progression during treatment. After treatment, visual acuity and CNV stabilization was observed in all patients.
Conclusions: The presence of CNV expands the clinical spectrum of AZOOR. CNV complicating AZOOR may be effectively treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF, despite progression of the zonal lesions. Further studies are required to define the role of treatment in the progression of the zonal lesions.
Keywords: Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy; Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment; Choroidal neovascularization; Multimodal retinal imaging.