The morphoagronomic characterization of 12 genotypes of M. esculenta was performed during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 crop years. The 12 genotypes were planted in a randomized block design, with four replicates per genotype. Number of tuberous roots per plant, weight of tuberous roots, root yield, total plant weight, harvest index, plant height, height of first branch, number of shoots, stem diameter, number of buds, leaf dry weight and petiole length were evaluated. Genotypes "Camuquem" and "Goiás" were the most productive, and "Amarela" and "Gema de Ovo" were the most divergent. Seventy percent of genetic diversity was due to petiole length (22.86%), root yield (19.20%), weight of tuberous roots (14.89%) and number of buds (13.72%). Overall, the present results indicate a broad genetic basis for the evaluated genotypes, so that such genetic variation benefits the plant breeding for future scenarios Further studies of the evaluated genotypes should be performed under environmental limitations, using biochemical and molecular tools to identify markers for genetic improvement.