Decreased Spexin Levels in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Med Princ Pract. 2018;27(6):549-554. doi: 10.1159/000493482. Epub 2018 Sep 5.


Background/aims: Spexin is a novel peptide which has a potential role as a biomarker of insulin resistance, diabetes, and obesity. Our aim was to measure spexin levels in lean type 1 diabetic patients and its relevance to glycemic parameters without the presence of obesity or insulin resistance.

Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional study included 29 type 1 and 30 type 2 diabetic patients and a control group of 23 healthy subjects with adjusted age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Glucose levels, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum cortisol levels, and spexin levels were measured in each patient.

Results: The median fasting serum spexin levels were significantly lower in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes than in control subjects (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041, respectively). Spexin levels were not correlated with glycemic parameters, lipids, BMI, cortisol levels, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (p > 0.05). Only age turned out to be correlated with spexin levels in patients with type 1 diabetes when we analyzed the groups separately. Regression models, including age and diabetes duration, revealed no association between age and spexin levels. Regression models, including cortisol, BMI, and HbA1c, revealed no association with spexin levels within each group.

Conclusion: The presence of type 1 diabetes is associated with lower spexin levels, independent of glucose, lipid parameters, and BMI. The expression of spexin in the pancreas apart from the current glycemic control of the patients may be the main determinant of spexin levels in type 1 diabetic patients.

Keywords: Biomarker; Spexin; Type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptide Hormones / blood*
  • Risk Factors
  • Turkey
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Peptide Hormones
  • SPX protein, human