Assessment of 22 inorganic elements in human amniotic fluid: a cross-sectional study conducted in Canary Islands (Spain)

Int J Environ Health Res. 2019 Apr;29(2):130-139. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2018.1516284. Epub 2018 Sep 6.


We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Hospital Universitario de Canarias (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain) measuring 22 inorganic elements in amniotic fluid (AF) samples obtained from 65 pregnant women. ICP-MS was used for quantification of inorganic elements. Newborn parameters at delivery were all within the normal range. Concentrations of all elements were detected in measurable amounts in AF. The concentration of elements was similar to those reported in the literature. The concentrations of the most dangerous heavy metals - Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb - were lower than those reported by other authors. This study demonstrates that toxic inorganic elements pass into and accumulate in AF. The presence of such pollutants in contact with developing embryos from the intrauterine period could exert adverse health effects that deserve future investigations.

Keywords: Amniotic fluid; inorganic pollutant; intrauterine exposure; monitoring assessment.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Amniotic Fluid / chemistry*
  • Arsenic / analysis*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental Pollutants / analysis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Metals / analysis*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Spain
  • Young Adult


  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Metals
  • Arsenic