Objective: Whereas small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is now a recognized part of fibromyalgia (FM), surprisingly little attention has been paid to any findings of large fiber neuropathy (LFN) in this disorder. Since 90% to 95% of FM subjects seen in our outpatient facility routinely undergo EMG and nerve conduction studies (NCS) we elected to retrospectively review the EMG/NCS results garnered from a large cohort of unselected subjects in order to describe the electrodiagnostic features of LFN in FM.
Methods: Records from 100 consecutive, unselected clinic patients meeting the 1990 ACR criteria for FM, who had undergone EMG/NCS, were reviewed. The same electromyographer tested all subjects. After exclusion of FM patients with any other clinically relevant condition that might influence EMG results (e.g., familial neural degenerative conditions, diabetes mellitus, Vitamin B-12 deficiency, etc.) fifty-five FM subjects remained: 29 subjects with "FM Only," and 26 subjects with FM+Rheumatoid Arthritis ("FM+RA"). All subjects had also undergone ankle area skin biopsy for determination of epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD). Fourteen other subjects, without FM or RA, examined by the same electromyographer, were used as an EMG/NCS comparison group.
Results: Ninety percent of the "FM Only" subjects demonstrated a demyelinating and/or axonal, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and 63% had findings of SFN (ENFD ≤7 fibers/mm), suggesting a mixed fiber neuropathy in most. Furthermore, 61% of the "FM Only" subjects showed EMG findings suggestive of non-myotomal lower extremity axonal motor denervation, most likely due to a polyneuropathy, and 41% satisfied published criteria for "possible" chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). There was surprisingly little difference in the EMG/NCS findings between the "FM Only" and the "FM+RA" groups. With the exception of carpal tunnel syndrome, our EMG/NCS comparison group showed few to none of these findings.
Conclusion: Our review of the EMG/NCS results, gleaned from the largest FM cohort yet studied with these modalities, shows that electrodiagnostic features of polyneuropathy, muscle denervation, and CIDP are common in FM. Furthermore these electrodiagnostic findings are often seen coincident with SFN, and are not significantly influenced by the presence of RA. These results, particularly when taken as a whole, suggest that EMG/NCS may be clinically useful in detecting LFN in FM and help in better understanding the etiopathogenesis of this painful disorder.