DSH5, a dihydrosphingosine C4 hydroxylase gene family member, shows spatially restricted expression in rice and is lethal when expressed ectopically

Genes Genet Syst. 2018 Nov 10;93(4):135-142. doi: 10.1266/ggs.17-00054. Epub 2018 Sep 4.


Dihydrosphingosine C4 hydroxylase (DSH), a diiron-binding membrane enzyme, catalyzes the hydration of dihydrosphingosine and acyl-sphinganine to produce phytosphingosine and phytoceramide, respectively. Rice has two types of DSH homologs: general DSHs, namely DSH1, DSH2 and DSH4, and others that show spatial expression profiles, namely DSH3 and DSH5. The general DSHs exist in many plant species. These DSHs showed similarity in their functions and complemented the yeast sur2D mutation. In contrast, homologs of DSH3 and DSH5 were found only in monocot plants. Phylogenetic analysis placed these DSHs in different clades that are evolutionarily divergent from those of the general DSHs. DSH3 and DSH5 showed low-level expression. DSH5 expression was specifically in vascular bundle tissues. Ectopic expression of DSH5 induced a dwarf phenotype characterized by severe growth inhibition and an increase in the thickness of the leaf body caused by enlargement of bulliform cells in the leaves. However, no significant difference was observed in the amount of sphingolipid species. DSH5 did not complement the yeast sur2D mutation, implying that DSH5 has little effect on sphingolipid metabolism. These findings suggested that DSH3 and DSH5 originated and diverged in monocot plants.

Keywords: evolutionary divergence; gene family; monocot plant; phylogenetic analysis; phytosphingosine.

MeSH terms

  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics*
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism
  • Multigene Family
  • Mutation
  • Oryza / enzymology
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Plant Leaves / genetics
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism
  • Transgenes


  • Plant Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • SUR2 protein, S cerevisiae