Four hypercalcemic infantile renal tumors were shown to secrete glucagon-like peptides. These unusual tumors were histologically classified as rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (3 cases) and a cellular mesoblastic nephroma (1 case). Elevated G-29 and G-37 glucagon levels were detected in the plasma and tumor extracts as well as in the supernatants of cultured tumor explants. Three of these tumors were heterotransplanted into the nude mice and serially passaged from a mouse to another. The glucagon level decreased in the transplanted tumor extracts with the number of passage.