In early infancy, two unrelated children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome were found to have elevated levels of androgen sulfates. When the steroid conjugates in the serum of normal infants were hydrolyzed and chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20, 4 androgen containing peaks (I, II, III, IV) were found. In the serum from these two infants with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Peaks I and III were increased, but Peaks II and IV were absent. The parents of the two children, and of three additional unrelated children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, had exaggerated 17-hydroxyprogesterone responses to an intravenous bolus of ACTH. These findings suggest that a defect in steroid metabolism may be linked to the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.