In search of efficient phosphorus resource recovery and pollution remediation should be highly concerned due to the view of phosphorus nonrenewable and eutrophication. This work presented a new insight into conversion of sewage sludge into favorable carbonaceous adsorbent for accelerated removing and recovering phosphorus from aqueous solution, what addressed the issues of phosphorus recovery and pollution remediation as well as sludge disposal. Ca and water hyacinth were evolved to decorate sludge derived carbon. Effect of mass ratio of sludge, water hyacinth and calcium carbonate on the morphologies and adsorption kinetics was investigated. The adsorbents (SW-Ca-112) resulted from sludge in the presence of water hyacinth and CaCO3 in a mass ratio of 1:1:2 had the highest adsorption capacity of 49.50 mg/g P and adsorption rate. Decoration of Ca favored adsorption ability and the presence of water hyacinth accelerated the adsorption rate due to the enhanced porosity. Formation of acicular Ca5(PO4)3OH nanoparticles contributed to the favorable adsorption process. Thus, the contribution of decorated Ca and water hyacinth to the adsorption ability and rate to phosphorus was understand, providing important information on resource utilization of sewage sludge as efficient adsorbent for immobilizing phosphorus from aqueous solution.