Background: The worsening problems of antibiotic resistance prompt the need for alternative strategies. Baicalin, which is isolated from Scutellaria baicalensisi, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-virulence and antimicrobial effects. Salmonella typhimurium is an important foodborne pathogenic bacteriaum that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and many animals.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of baicalin on S. typhimurium infection in mice and its possible mechanism in vitro.
Study design: To evaluate the effect of baicalin in vivo, mice were orally administered of baicalin, and then were infected by an intragastric administration of S. typhimurium. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A against S. typhimurium were detected under the guides of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In vitro, Caco-2 cells were infected with S. typhimurium in the presence or absence of baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A at sub-MICs.
Methods: In the in vivo experiment, the body weight loss, the serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), the pathological changes of the caecum and the caecum bacterial burdens were examined. The MICs and MBCs of baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A against S. typhimurium were detected by two-fold serial dilutions. In vitro, Caco-2 cells were infected with S. typhimurium, and the invasion capacity, TNFα, nitrate, and LDH were analysed. The transcription levels of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 virulence associated genes (sopB, sopE, sopE2) of S. typhimurium in the presence of baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A were detected by qRT-PCR.
Results: Our results showed that baicalin significantly decreased the body weight loss, the serum levels of TNFα, IL-6, and LDH, and the caecum bacterial burdens of mice challenged with S. typhimurium. Histological examination showed that baicalin decreased the lesion in the caecum of S. typhimurium-infected mice. MICs and MBCs of baicalin, and oroxylin A. against S. typhimurium were > 128 µg/ml. MICs and MBCs of baicalein against S. typhimurium were 64 µg/ml, and > 128 µg/ml, respectively. Pretreatment of Caco-2 cells or S. typhimurium with baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A significantly inhibited the invasion of Caco-2 cells by S. typhimurium in a dose-dependent manner. Sub-MICs of baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A also significantly decreased the levels of TNFα, nitrate, and LDH from S. typhimurium-infected Caco-2 cells. Moreover, the transcription levels of sopB, sopE, and sopE2 were significantly suppressed by baicalin, baicalein, and oroxylin A.
Conclusions: These results demonstrated that baicalin is a promising agent for the prevention of S. typhimurium infection via the modulation of both bacterial virulence and host response.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Anti-invasion; Baicalein; Baicalin; Oroxylin A; Salmonella typhimurium.
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