Background: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are vulnerable to contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after cardiac catheterization. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for clinically significant CI-AKI and evaluate the predictive value of contrast volume to estimated glomerular filtration rate ratio (V/eGFR) for the risk of CI-AKI following catheterization in the ACHD population.
Methods: ACHD patients who underwent catheterization at Boston Children's hospital between 1/2011 and 1/2017 were retrospectively analyzed. CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL within 48 hr or ≥1.5 times baseline within 7 days of procedure. Controls without CI-AKI were matched for calendar year of catheterization with cases using a 3:1 ratio.
Results: Of 453 catheterizations meeting inclusion criteria, 27 catheterizations (5.9%) were complicated by CI-AKI, with dialysis being used to manage renal dysfunction in five of these events. Older age, male gender, admission prior to catheterization, and V/eGFR ratio were found to be related to risk of CI-AKI. Patients with a V/eGFR ≥ 2.6 had a significantly higher risk of CI-AKI (OR = 6.4; 95% CI = 2.0-20.4; P = 0.002). Survival at 3 years post-catheterization, was significantly shorter for CI-AKI cases compared to controls (49% versus 97%; P < 0.001) even in those with return to baseline renal function prior to discharge (60% versus 97%, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: In ACHD patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, a higher V/eGFR ratio is a strong predictor of clinically significant CI-AKI. Development of CI-AKI is a poor prognostic indicator and is associated with decreased survival in this population.
Keywords: adult congenital heart disease; cardiac catheterization; contrast-induced acute kidney injury.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.