Reactive persulfides such as cysteine persulfide and glutathione persulfide are produced by bacteria including Salmonella during sulfur metabolism. The biological significance of bacterial reactive persulfides in host-pathogen interactions still warrants investigation. We found that reactive persulfides produced by Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 regulate macrophage autophagy via metabolizing 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP), an electrophilic product of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signaling. 8-Nitro-cGMP signaling was required for efficient autophagy-mediated clearance of Salmonella from infected macrophages. In the infected cells, 8-nitro-cGMP caused cGMP adduct formation (S-guanylation) of bacterial surface proteins, which triggered recruitment of autophagy-related proteins p62 and LC3-II to the intracellular bacteria. We also found that Salmonella-produced reactive persulfides downregulated this autophagy by decreasing cellular 8-nitro-cGMP content, thereby inhibiting electrophilic signaling. These data reveal a pathogenic role of bacteria-derived reactive persulfides via suppression of anti-bacterial autophagy.
Keywords: 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate; autophagy; electrophilic signaling; host-pathogen interaction; reactive persulfides.
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