Fetal Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation: The Role of an Objective Measurement of Cardiomediastinal Shift

Am J Perinatol. 2019 Feb;36(3):225-232. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1669909. Epub 2018 Sep 10.


Objective: To examine the relationship between cardiomediastinal shift angle (CMSA) and adverse perinatal outcomes and hydrops in cases of congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM).

Study design: This retrospective study evaluated CPAM cases referred to our institution from 2008 to 2015. The primary outcome was a composite score for adverse perinatal outcome. CMSA was measured for each case and evaluated for its association with the primary outcome. The prediction accuracy of CMSA for adverse perinatal outcome was assessed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves.

Results: Eighteen (21.2%) of the 85 cases experienced an adverse perinatal outcome. Increases in CMSA were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and hydrops in bivariate analyses. Adjusted analyses found each 10-degree increase in CMSA to be associated with increased odds of an adverse perinatal outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3) and hydrops (aOR 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-6.1). CMSA performed well and was comparable to CPAM volume ratio in predicting adverse perinatal outcomes (area under the curve 0.81 and 0.84, respectively).

Conclusion: We describe a novel measurement of mediastinal shift in cases of CPAM and its relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes and hydrops. These findings may shape the evaluation and management of CPAMs, improve our understanding of their prognosis, and influence patient counseling.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital / complications*
  • Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital / embryology
  • Female
  • Fetal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Heart / anatomy & histology
  • Heart / embryology*
  • Humans
  • Hydrops Fetalis / etiology
  • Lung Diseases / congenital
  • Mediastinum / anatomy & histology
  • Mediastinum / embryology*
  • Pregnancy
  • ROC Curve
  • Respiratory System Abnormalities / diagnosis*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ultrasonography, Prenatal