Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, the ubiquitous protein cofactors found in all kingdoms of life, perform a myriad of functions including nitrogen fixation, ribosome assembly, DNA repair, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolite catabolism. The biogenesis of Fe-S clusters is a multi-step process that involves the participation of many protein partners. Recent biophysical studies, involving X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), have greatly improved our understanding of these steps. In this review, after describing the biological importance of iron sulfur proteins, we focus on the contributions of NMR spectroscopy has made to our understanding of the structures, dynamics, and interactions of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of Fe-S cluster proteins.
Keywords: CIA; ISC; NMR; iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis; mitochondria.