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. 2018 Sep 2;11(9):1588.
doi: 10.3390/ma11091588.

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of Wood-Derived Biocarbon Structures

Free PMC article

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Properties of Wood-Derived Biocarbon Structures

Min Yu et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article


Wood-derived porous graphitic biocarbons with hierarchical structures were obtained by high-temperature (2200⁻2400 °C) non-catalytic graphitization, and their mechanical, electrical and thermal properties are reported for the first time. Compared to amorphous biocarbon produced at 1000 °C, the graphitized biocarbon-2200 °C and biocarbon-2400 °C exhibited increased compressive strength by ~38% (~36 MPa), increased electrical conductivity by ~8 fold (~29 S/cm), and increased thermal conductivity by ~5 fold (~9.5 W/(m·K) at 25 °C). The increase of duration time at 2200 °C contributed to increased thermal conductivity by ~12%, while the increase of temperature from 2200 to 2400 °C did not change their thermal conductivity, indicating that 2200 °C is sufficient for non-catalytic graphitization of wood-derived biocarbon.

Keywords: graphitization; thermal conductivity; wood-derived biocarbon.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
(ac) SEM micrographs and (d,e) pore size distributions (based on BET analysis) of the biocarbon structures obtained at different heat treatment conditions. (d) is the sample prepared at 1000 °C for 4 h and (e) is the sample prepared at 2400 °C for 10 min.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Raman spectra of wood-derived biocarbon prepared at different temperatures and dwell times.
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) XRD patterns of biocarbon structures obtained using different temperatures and dwell times; (b,c) are high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of the biocarbon structures prepared at 1000 °C and 2400 °C, respectively. The insets are the corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns.
Figure 4
Figure 4
(a) Thermal diffusivity as a function of measuring temperatures for biocarbons obtained using different processing temperatures and dwell time; (b) Thermal diffusivity versus measuring temperatures during the heating and cooling process of the biocarbon prepared at 2400 °C for 10 min; (c) Thermal conductivity as a function of measuring temperatures for biocarbons; (d) Comparison of thermal conductivity (at 100 °C) of beech-derived biocarbons prepared using different techniques.

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