Risk assessment tools, i.e., validated risk prediction algorithms, to estimate the patient's 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) should be used to identify high-risk people for primary prevention. Current evidence confirms that appropriate monitoring and control of risk factors either reduces the likelihood of CVD or slows down its progression. It is thus crucial that all health professionals make appropriate use of all the available intervention strategies to control risk factors: from dietary improvement and adequate physical activity to the use of functional foods, food supplements, and drugs. The gut microbiota, which encompasses 1 × 1014 resident microorganisms, has been recently recognized as a contributing factor in the development of human disease. This review examines the effect of both some vegetable food components belong to the "protein food group" and the underexploited protein-rich hempseed on cholesterolemia and gut microbiota composition.
Keywords: LDL-receptor; PCSK9; cholesterol; functional food; hempseed; lupins; microbiota; peas; protein food group; soybeans.