Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in the United States, routinely treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). While effective and generally well tolerated, PPIs have been associated with undesirable long-term side effects and are often used inappropriately. Lifestyle medicine can be effective in reducing GERD symptoms in many patients without the untoward side effects of pharmacotherapy. This article will describe relevant emerging and established side effects of long-term PPI use, the efficacy of lifestyle modifications in the management of GERD, and discuss the importance of advocating for lifestyle when PPIs are not otherwise indicated.
Keywords: GERD; bone fracture; chronic kidney disease; dementia; lifestyle; proton pump inhibitor.
The Risks and Benefits of Long-term Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors: Expert Review and Best Practice Advice From the American Gastroenterological AssociationDE Freedberg et al. Gastroenterology 152 (4), 706-715. PMID 28257716. - ReviewThe recommendations outlined in this review are based on expert opinion and on relevant publications from PubMed, EMbase, and the Cochrane library (through July 2016). To …
Proton Pump Inhibitors in the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux DiseaseN Hrelja et al. Med Arh 65 (1), 52-5. PMID 21534455. - ReviewThe primary treatment goals in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are relief of symptoms, prevention of symptom relapse, healing of erosive esophagitis …
Discontinuation of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Patients on Long-Term Therapy: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled TrialE Björnsson et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24 (6), 945-54. PMID 16948806. - Randomized Controlled TrialDiscontinuation of PPI was successful in 27% of long-term PPI users. GERD patients had more difficulty discontinuing PPIs than non-GERD patients.
Effectiveness and Safety of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Infantile Gastroesophageal Reflux DiseaseTW Higginbotham. Ann Pharmacother 44 (3), 572-6. PMID 20124466. - ReviewClinical trials reveal that PPI therapy is not an effective treatment for common infant GERD-associated symptoms. Evidence supporting safety of PPI use in infants is conf …
[Newly Recognized Side-Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors. Arguments in Favour of Fundoplication for GERD?]BH von Rahden et al. Chirurg 83 (1), 38-44. PMID 21909830. - ReviewAmong other indications proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and are the most frequently prescribed and m …