Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pregnancy. Incidence, Transmission to Fetus, and Clinical Outcome

JAMA. 1986 Oct 10;256(14):1904-8.

Abstract

We studied 16 218 pregnant women from two income groups to determine the incidence of primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and its consequences for the offspring. In the high-income group, 64.5% of the women were seronegative for CMV and 1.6% had primary CMV infection. In the low-income group, only 23.4% of the women were seronegative for CMV, but 3.7% experienced a primary infection. The rate of transmission in utero was similar in the two groups (39% and 31%). Congenital infections were more frequent in the low-income group; however, primary CMV accounted for 25% of the congenital infections in this group, in contrast to 63% of the high-income cases. Infections acquired early and late in gestation had similar rates of transmission in utero, but three infants (8%) with symptomatic congenital infection and five infants (13.5%) who have developed significant handicaps were exposed in the first half of pregnancy. Primary CMV infection during pregnancy poses a 30% to 40% risk of intrauterine transmission and adverse outcome is more likely when infection occurs within the first half of gestation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / congenital
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Cytomegalovirus Infections / transmission
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Maternal-Fetal Exchange
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / epidemiology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Socioeconomic Factors