Objective: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have been associated with other chronic painful conditions (e.g., fibromyalgia, headache) and suicide and mood disorders. Here we examined musculoskeletal, painful, and mental health comorbidities in men vs women veterans with TMD (compared with non-TMD musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs] cases), as well as comorbidity patterns within TMD cases.
Design: Observational cohort.
Setting: National Veterans Health Administration.
Subjects: A cohort of 4.1 million veterans having 1+ MSDs, entering the cohort between 2001 and 2011.
Methods: Chi-square tests, t tests, and logistic regression were utilized for cross-sectional analysis.
Results: Among veterans with any MSD, those with TMD were younger and more likely to be women. The association of TMD with race/ethnicity differed by sex. Odds of TMD were higher in men of Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.27-1.48) and nonwhite race/ethnicity other than black or Hispanic (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.16-1.45) compared with white men. Odds of TMD were significantly lower for black (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.49-0.60) and Hispanic women (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73-0.995) relative to white women. Non-MSD comorbidities (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome, mental health, headaches) were significantly associated with TMD in male veterans; their pattern was similar in women. Veterans with back pain, nontraumatic joint disorder, or osteoarthritis had more MSD multimorbidity than those with TMD.
Conclusions: Complex patterns of comorbidity in TMD cases may indicate different underlying mechanisms of association in subgroups or phenotypes, thereby suggesting multiple targets to improve TMD. Longitudinal comprehensive studies powered to look at sex and racial/ethnic groupings are needed to identify targets to personalize care.