The progress this year in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis concerned essentially endoscopy and molecular techniques. New endoscopy techniques such as blue laser imaging and magnifying narrow band imaging allow the visualization of mucosal aspects representing H. pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia, and even ambiguous early gastric cancer. Several real-time PCRs have also been used either to quantify H. pylori or to detect mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance in gastric biopsies or applied on gastric juice, stool specimens, or the oral cavity. The presence of H. pylori in free-living amebae purified from wastewater and drinking water was also determined by PCR and sequencing, as well as culture from a few wastewater samples. Among the noninvasive methods, the urea breath test was used in different conditions, including with a new test meal, which is claimed to avoid the proton-pump inhibitor washout period before testing. Several articles concerning antibody detection and stool antigen test were also published.
Keywords: endoscopy; rapid urease test; real-time PCR; serology; stool antigen test; urea breath test.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.