A simultaneous oral and intramuscular prime/sublingual boost with a DNA/Modified Vaccinia Ankara viral vector-based vaccine induces simian immunodeficiency virus-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses in juvenile rhesus macaques

J Med Primatol. 2018 Oct;47(5):288-297. doi: 10.1111/jmp.12372. Epub 2018 Sep 11.


Background: A pediatric vaccine to prevent breast milk transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may generate greater immune responses at viral entry sites if given by an oral route.

Methods: We compared immune responses induced in juvenile macaques by prime/boosting with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-expressing DNA/modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) by the intramuscular route (IM), the oral (O)/tonsillar routes (T), the O/sublingual (SL) routes, and O+IM/SL routes.

Results: O/T or O/SL immunization generated SIV-specific T cells in mucosal tissues but failed to induce SIV-specific IgA in saliva or stool or IgG in plasma. IM/IM or O+IM/SL generated humoral and cellular responses to SIV. IM/IM generated greater frequencies of TFH in spleen, but O+IM/SL animals had higher avidity plasma IgG and more often demonstrated mucosal IgA responses.

Conclusion: These results suggest that codelivery of HIV DNA/MVA vaccines by the oral and IM routes might be optimal for generating both systemic and mucosal antibodies.

Keywords: HIV; oral route; pediatric vaccine.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Administration, Sublingual
  • Animals
  • DNA, Viral / adverse effects
  • Immunity, Cellular / immunology*
  • Immunity, Mucosal / immunology*
  • Immunogenicity, Vaccine / immunology*
  • Injections, Intramuscular / adverse effects
  • Macaca mulatta*
  • Monkey Diseases / immunology*
  • Proof of Concept Study
  • SAIDS Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / immunology*
  • Vaccinia / immunology


  • DNA, Viral
  • SAIDS Vaccines