Parastomal hernia (PSH), defined as an incisional hernia at the abdominal wall defect resulting from stoma formation, is a frequent complication of enterostomy (ileostomy and jejunostomy), colostomy, and urostomy. A growing body of evidence supports the use of prophylactic mesh at the time of stoma creation to prevent the development of PSH. In particular, the use of permanent mesh has been supported in the creation of an end colostomy, and prophylactic mesh has been studied for use in other types of stoma. Permanent mesh materials used for PSH prophylaxis include polypropylene, polyester, polytetrafluoroethylene, and composite prosthetics. Despite the appeal of biologic and bioabsorbable materials in an operative field that poses a potentially higher risk of infection, there is insufficient evidence to support their use in primary PSH prevention. Two-dimensional meshes are usually cut to contain a keyhole through which the bowel passes, and may be placed in the sublay/retrorectus, intraperitoneal, or preperitoneal position. Alternative techniques include placement of a non-keyhole mesh in a position similar to that of a Sugarbaker PSH repair or use of a circular stapler fired through the abdominal wall fascia and mesh simultaneously, fixing both together. Three-dimensional mesh devices, including the Prolene® and Ultrapro® Hernia Systems (PHS/UHS) (Ethicon US, LLC, Somerville, NJ), have been studied for use in PSH prevention. Novel, specialized devices such as the Koring (Koring AG, Basel, Switzerland) stoma mesh have been designed specifically for primary PSH prevention. While the benefits of mesh prophylaxis have been established, further evidence is needed to identify the optimal materials and technique for PSH prevention in a variety of patients and settings. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the operative techniques and evidence supporting prophylaxis of parastomal hernias.