Effect of chlorella supplementation on systematic symptoms and serum levels of prostaglandins, inflammatory and oxidative markers in women with primary dysmenorrhea

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018 Oct;229:185-189. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2018.08.578. Epub 2018 Aug 27.


Objective: Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most commonly reported disorders for women that have unfavorable effects on patient's quality of life. Based on the evidences that suggest the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of chlorella, this double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella supplementation on the severity of menstrual pain in a group of young women with primary dysmenorrhea.

Study design: In this clinical trial, 44 girls with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received 1500 mg/day of chlorella as 5 soft gel and the control group received placebo soft gels for eight weeks. Menstrual and food information were collected using a previously validated and published questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), ProstaglandinF2a (PGF2a), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed at baseline and end of week eight.

Results: In chlorella supplemented group the PGE2, PGF2a, hs-CRP and MDA decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The severity and duration of dysmenorrheal pain were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Systemic symptoms of dysmenorrhea (fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, lack of energy) decreased in the chlorella group (p < 0.05). The mean of menstrual characteristics, anthropometric indices and daily energy and macronutrient intake in both intervention and control groups were not changed significantly.

Conclusion: This study showed that chlorella supplementation could decrease the severity of pain and systemic symptoms and improve serum levels of prostaglandins, inflammatory and oxidative markers in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

Keywords: Chlorella; Inflammatory and oxidative markers; Primary dysmenorrhea; Systematic symptoms.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Chlorella*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Dysmenorrhea / blood
  • Dysmenorrhea / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Prostaglandins / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Prostaglandins
  • Malondialdehyde
  • C-Reactive Protein