Potential Gastroprotective Activity of Rice Bran ( Oryza sativa L.) Extracted by Ionic Liquid-Microwave-Assisted Extraction against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rat Model

Sci Pharm. 2018 Sep 7;86(3):E35. doi: 10.3390/scipharm86030035.

Abstract

The presence of gamma-oryzanol in rice bran oil can be 10⁻20-fold higher than tocopherol and tocotrienol. Gamma-oryzanol has various pharmacological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rice bran extract as a gastroprotective in reducing lesions in ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer models in rat, using the ionic liquid-microwave-assisted extraction (IL-MAE) method. Rice bran extract was obtained using the IL-MAE method with ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF₄ (concentration 0.7 M), and a ratio of solid/liquid of 15 g/mL, 15 min extraction time, and 10% microwave power. The rats were pretreated with rice bran extract at different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight; BW) for seven days and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by 80% ethanol. Omeprazole (36 mg/kg BW) was used as a standard anti-ulcer drug. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, and mucus levels were measured to assess the degree of gastroprotection. The results showed that the oral administration of rice bran extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg BW significantly inhibited the development of ulcer formation by 66.75% and reduced gastric acid levels. Moreover, gamma oryzanol and omeprazole protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions by increasing the level of gastric mucus. Rice bran extract is effective as a gastroprotective therapy sourced from natural ingredients in treating the incidence of gastric ulcers. Most likely, this is related to gamma oryzanol as a bioactive compound contained in rice bran (Oryza sativa L.).

Keywords: gamma-oryzanol; gastroprotective; ionic liquid-microwave-assisted extraction (IL-MAE); rice bran; ulcer.