Vitamin D is a steroid-like hormone which acts by binding to vitamin D receptor (VDR). It plays a main role in the calcium homeostasis and metabolism. In addition, vitamin D display other important effects called "non-classical actions." Among them, vitamin D regulates immune cells function and hematopoietic cells differentiation and proliferation. Based on these effects, it is currently being evaluated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. In addition, vitamin D levels have been correlated with patients' outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, where it might regulate immune response and, accordingly, might influence the risk of graft-versus-host disease. Here, we present recent advances regarding its clinical applications both in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and in the transplant setting.
Keywords: allogeneic stem cell transplantation; haematopoiesis; leukaemia; myelodysplastic syndrome; vitamin D.