Introduction: Oral formulations of the antipsychotics aripiprazole, asenapine, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, and risperidone are indicated for use in pediatrics for several diagnoses. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are of interest in this special population because they may be used due to convenience and desire to improve adherence, despite limited support in the literature. The primary intent of this study is to provide descriptive information on the use of paliperidone palmitate, risperidone microspheres, aripiprazole extended-release injection, and olanzapine pamoate in pediatric patients within Indiana Medicaid.
Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis, which retrieved information from Indiana Medicaid over a 2-year timeframe spanning from July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014. The study included the prescription medications filled for all children and adolescents within Indiana Medicaid who received the LAI antipsychotics paliperidone palmitate, risperidone microspheres, aripiprazole extended-release injection, and olanzapine pamoate.
Results: From July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014, 150 Indiana Medicaid patients younger than 18 years old were prescribed a LAI atypical antipsychotic. A total of 1013 LAI atypical antipsychotic doses were billed to Indiana Medicaid during the study period for pediatric patients. Paliperidone palmitate was billed most frequently.
Discussion: Long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotics are being prescribed for children and adolescents within Indiana Medicaid, despite minimal clinical evidence supporting use. There is a need for further research in this area to increase generalizability of results and aid in implementation of policies to prevent inappropriate use of LAI antipsychotics in children and adolescents.
Keywords: Medicaid; children and adolescent; long-acting injectable antipsychotic.