Aim: To assess the possible risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the use of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) as well as changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hospitalizations and mortality in a real-world setting.
Materials and methods: Included in this historical cohort study were patients with type 2 diabetes in a large health organization in Israel who initiated therapy with SGLT2-i or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) during 1 April 2015 to 30 June 2017. We collected data on serum creatinine measurements taken between 180 days prior to and 24 weeks after therapy initiation. Study endpoints included ≥30% reduction in eGFR, hospitalization with AKI, any hospitalization and all-cause mortality.
Results: Overall 6418 and 5604 patients initiated SGLT2-i and DPP-4i, respectively. Baseline mean (SD) eGFR was higher among the SGLT2-i group compared with the DPP-4i group (88.3 [17.4] and 82.8 [23.7], respectively) but were similar when stratifying by chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for ≥30% reduction in eGFR with SGLT2-i versus DPP4-i was 0.70 (0.49-1.00) and ORs ranged from 1.97 (0.62-6.26) to 0.45 (0.21-0.99) in patients with baseline eGFR 30 to 45 and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 , respectively. Risks of AKI (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.80), hospitalization (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.56-0.78) or all-cause mortality (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.95) were lower in patients initiating SGLT2-i versus DPP-4i.
Conclusions: This real-world data analysis supports reassuring findings from previous randomized clinical trials showing no increased AKI risk among SGLT2-i users. Nevertheless, because of the more prominent decrease in eGFR in patients with moderate CKD, cautious use of SGLT2-i in patients with reduced eGFR is advised.
Keywords: SGLT2 inhibitor; cohort study; type 2 diabetes.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.