Complex Signaling Networks Controlling Dynamic Molecular Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm

Curr Med Chem. 2019;26(11):1979-1993. doi: 10.2174/0929867325666180912110151.


The environment exerts strong influence on microbes. Adaptation of microbes to changing conditions is a dynamic process regulated by complex networks. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a life-threating, versatile opportunistic and multi drug resistant pathogen that provides a model to investigate adaptation mechanisms to environmental changes. The ability of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms and to modify virulence in response to environmental changes is coordinated by various mechanisms including two-component systems (TCS), and secondary messengers involved in quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP networks (diguanylate cyclase systems, DGC). In this review, we focus on the role of c-di-GMP during biofilm formation. We describe TCS and QS signal cascades regulated by c-di-GMP in response to changes in the external environment. We present a complex signaling network dynamically changing during the transition of P. aeruginosa from the free-living to sessile mode of growth.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; biofilm; biomarker; diguanylate cyclase systems; quorum sensing signaling pathway; two-component systems..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms*
  • Cyclic GMP / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / growth & development
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / physiology*
  • Quorum Sensing / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*


  • bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid
  • Cyclic GMP