To date, six vaccine strategies have been evaluated in clinical trials for their efficacy at inducing protective immune responses against HIV infection. However, only the ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX B/E vaccine (RV144 trial) has demonstrated protection, albeit modestly (31%; P = 0.03). One potential correlate of protection was a low-frequency HIV-specific CD4 T cell population with diverse functionality. Although CD4 T cells, particularly T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, are critical for effective antibody responses, most studies involving HIV vaccines have focused on humoral immunity or CD8 T cell effector responses, and little is known about the functionality and frequency of vaccine-induced CD4 T cells. We therefore assessed responses from several phase I/II clinical trials and compared them to responses to natural HIV-1 infection. We found that all vaccines induced a lower magnitude of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses than that observed for chronic infection. Responses differed in functionality, with a CD40 ligand (CD40L)-dominated response and more Tfh cells after vaccination, whereas chronic HIV infection provoked tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-dominated responses. The vaccine delivery route further impacted CD4 T cells, showing a stronger Th1 polarization after dendritic cell delivery than after intramuscular vaccination. In prime/boost regimens, the choice of prime and boost influenced the functional profile of CD4 T cells to induce more or less polyfunctionality. In summary, vaccine-induced CD4 T cell responses differ remarkably between vaccination strategies, modes of delivery, and boosts and do not resemble those induced by chronic HIV infection. Understanding the functional profiles of CD4 T cells that best facilitate protective antibody responses will be critical if CD4 T cell responses are to be considered a clinical trial go/no-go criterion.IMPORTANCE Only one HIV-1 candidate vaccine strategy has shown protection, albeit marginally (31%), against HIV-1 acquisition, and correlates of protection suggested that a multifunctional CD4 T cell immune response may be important for this protective effect. Therefore, the functional phenotypes of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses induced by different phase I and phase II clinical trials were assessed to better show how different vaccine strategies influence the phenotype and function of HIV-specific CD4 T cell immune responses. The significance of this research lies in our comprehensive comparison of the compositions of the T cell immune responses to different HIV vaccine modalities. Specifically, our work allows for the evaluation of vaccination strategies in terms of their success at inducing Tfh cell populations.
Keywords: CD4 T cells; HIV vaccine; RV144; Tfh cells; human immunodeficiency virus.
Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.