Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a mutation in the HTT gene, for which there is currently no cure. The identification of sensitive indicators of disease progression and therapeutic outcome could help the development of effective strategies for treating HD. We assessed mutant huntingtin (mHTT) and neurofilament light (NfL) protein concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in parallel with clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging in premanifest and manifest HD mutation carriers. Among HD mutation carriers, NfL concentrations in plasma and CSF correlated with all nonbiofluid measures more closely than did CSF mHTT concentration. Longitudinal analysis over 4 to 8 weeks showed that CSF mHTT, CSF NfL, and plasma NfL concentrations were highly stable within individuals. In our cohort, concentration of CSF mHTT accurately distinguished between controls and HD mutation carriers, whereas NfL concentration, in both CSF and plasma, was able to segregate premanifest from manifest HD. In silico modeling indicated that mHTT and NfL concentrations in biofluids might be among the earliest detectable alterations in HD, and sample size prediction suggested that low participant numbers would be needed to incorporate these measures into clinical trials. These findings provide evidence that biofluid concentrations of mHTT and NfL have potential for early and sensitive detection of alterations in HD and could be integrated into both clinical trials and the clinic.
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