A kinetic model of carnosine synthesis in human skeletal muscle

Amino Acids. 2019 Jan;51(1):115-121. doi: 10.1007/s00726-018-2646-z. Epub 2018 Sep 12.


Drawing on previously published data, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the synthesis of carnosine in muscle using a slow release β-alanine supplement (SR-CarnoSyn®). The model pre-supposes that the rate of synthesis for any given dose of β-alanine (within the range 1.6-6.4 g day-1) is constant with time, but is first order with respect to daily β-alanine dose. Simultaneously with synthesis, decay in carnosine is also assumed to be occurring, the rate in this case being a function of the concentration of carnosine. Decay in carnosine appears describable by first-order kinetics. By integration of the two rate reactions, a single mathematical equation was derived to describe the synthesis of carnosine and which closely fitted the experimental data over 56 days. The model, if validated by additional studies, could be used to compliment empirical observations of the changes in carnosine in muscle with supplementation, and allow objective examination of a number of possible influences affecting the rate constants of synthesis and decay.

Keywords: Carnosine; Mathematical model; Muscle; Supplementation; β-Alanine.

MeSH terms

  • Carnosine / agonists
  • Carnosine / biosynthesis*
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Drug Dosage Calculations
  • Humans
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Time Factors
  • beta-Alanine / pharmacokinetics*


  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • beta-Alanine
  • Carnosine