Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play an important role in a host immune system. TLR triggering leads to the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, driving the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, an increasing number studies have shown the link between TLRs and cancer. Among them, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is associated with inflammatory response and cancer progression. Dietary phytochemicals are potential modulators of immunological status with various pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. Curcumin, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), luteolin, quercetin, resveratrol, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, xanthohumol, genistein, berberine, and sulforaphane can inhibit TLR4 activation. The aim of the present review is to describe the role of the TLR4 signaling pathway between inflammatory response and cancer progression. We further introduce bioactive phytochemicals with potential anti-inflammation and chemoprevention by inhibiting TLR activation.
Keywords: anti-inflammatory; chemoprevention; toll-like receptor.