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, 9 (1), 3709

Less Absorbed Solar Energy and More Internal Heat for Jupiter


Less Absorbed Solar Energy and More Internal Heat for Jupiter

Liming Li et al. Nat Commun.


The radiant energy budget and internal heat are fundamental properties of giant planets, but precise determination of these properties remains a challenge. Here, we report measurements of Jupiter's radiant energy budget and internal heat based on Cassini multi-instrument observations. Our findings reveal that Jupiter's Bond albedo and internal heat, 0.503 ± 0.012 and 7.485 ± 0.160 W m-2 respectively, are significantly larger than 0.343 ± 0.032 and 5.444 ± 0.425 Wm-2, the previous best estimates. The new results help constrain and improve the current evolutionary theories and models for Jupiter. Furthermore, the significant wavelength dependency of Jupiter's albedo implies that the radiant energy budgets and internal heat of the other giant planets in our solar system should be re-examined. Finally, the data sets of Jupiter's characteristics of reflective solar spectral irradiance provide an observational basis for the models of giant exoplanets.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Examples of Jupiter’s global images in the indicated phase angles recorded by the Cassini ISS. The images were recorded by the Cassini ISS at the second continuum filter (CB2) during the Jupiter-flyby mission in 2000–2001
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Jupiter’s albedo in the two-dimensional domain of phase angle and wavelength. The full-disk albedo with varying phase angle (0°–180°) is displayed in the wavelength range of 0–4000 nm, in which more than 99% of the total solar power is concentrated
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Jupiter’s monochromatic geometric albedo, phase integral, and Bond albedo. a Monochromatic geometric albedo. b Monochromatic phase integral. c Monochromatic Bond albedo. Vertical lines in the three panels represent error bars of measurements

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