Generation of new neurons is a tightly regulated process that involves several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among them, a metabolic switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, together with mitochondrial remodeling, has emerged as crucial actors of neurogenesis. However, although accumulating data raise the importance of mitochondrial morphology and function in neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation during development, information regarding the contribution of mitochondria to adult neurogenesis processes remains limited. In the present review, we discuss recent evidence covering the importance of mitochondrial morphology, function, and energy metabolism in the regulation of neuronal development and adult neurogenesis, and their impact on memory processes.
Keywords: Adult neurogenesis; Development; Mitochondria; Neurons.