Calcium signaling is emerging as a key pathway controlling cellular senescence, a stable cell proliferation arrest playing a fundamental role in pathophysiological conditions, such as embryonic development, wound healing, cancer, and aging. However, how calcium signaling is regulated is still only partially understood. The inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 (ITPR2), an endoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel, was recently shown to critically contribute to the implementation of senescence, but how ITPR2 expression is controlled is unclear. To gain insights into the regulation of ITPR2 expression, we performed an siRNA screen targeting 160 transcription factors and epigenetic regulators. Interestingly, we discovered that the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), which belongs to the nuclear receptor family, represses ITPR2 expression and regulates calcium signaling though ITPR2 and the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Knockdown of RXRA induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage via the ITPR2-MCU calcium signaling axis and consequently triggers cellular senescence by activating p53, whereas RXRA overexpression decreases DNA damage accumulation and then delays replicative senescence. Altogether, our work sheds light on a novel mechanism controlling calcium signaling and cellular senescence and provides new insights into the role of nuclear receptors.
Keywords: ITPR2; calcium; nuclear receptor; p53; senescence.
© 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.