Low vitamin D status is associated with increased risk of pneumonia, greater disease severity and poorer outcome. However, no trials have examined the effect of adjunctive vitamin D therapy on outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examining the effects of adjunctive vitamin D in adults hospitalised with CAP. Participants were randomised to either a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo. The primary outcome was the complete resolution of chest radiograph infiltrate at 6 weeks post-study treatment. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, intensive care admission and return to normal activity. Only participants who completed the study or died within the 6 week period were included in the analysis (n = 60 vitamin D, n = 57 placebo). Adjunctive vitamin D did not have any effect on the primary outcome (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.86, p = 0.548). However, there was evidence it increased the complete resolution of pneumonia in participants with baseline vitamin D levels <25 nmol/L (OR 17.0, 95% CI 1.40-549.45, P = 0.043), but this did not reach statistical significance using exact methods (OR 13.0, 95%CI 0.7-960.4, P = 0.083). There were no significant effects for any secondary outcome.