We tested the ability of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (PEV) to promote adhesion of flowing neutrophils to endothelial cells (EC). PEV were collected from platelets stimulated with collagen-related peptide, and differential centrifugation was used to collect larger vesicles enriched for platelet membrane microvesicles (PMV) or smaller vesicles enriched for platelet exosomes (Pexo). Vesicle binding and resultant activation of neutrophils and EC were assessed by flow cytometry. Flow-based adhesion assays assessed binding of neutrophils directly to deposited vesicles or to EC, after neutrophils or EC had been treated with vesicles. PEV bound efficiently to neutrophils or EC, with resultant upregulation of activation markers. Binding was Ca++-dependent and dominantly mediated by CD62P for neutrophils or by integrins for EC. Deposited PEV supported mainly transient attachments of flowing neutrophils through CD62P and some stable adhesion through CXC-chemokines. Neutrophil adhesion to EC was promoted when either cell was pre-treated with PEV, although the effect was less prominent when EC were pre-activated with tumor necrosis factor-α. The pro-adhesive effects on neutrophils could largely be attributed to the larger PMV rather than Pexo. Thus, surface-bound PEV can capture flowing neutrophils, while PEV also activate neutrophils and EC to promote interactions. PEV may potentiate inflammatory responses after tissue injury.
Keywords: cell adhesion; endothelial cells; extracellular vesicles; neutrophils; platelets.