Epidemiology of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Azerbaijan: Incidence, clinical features, biochemistry, and HLA-DRB1 status

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Oct;144:252-259. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.09.009. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Abstract

Aims: Determine the incidence and typology of diabetes in children in Azerbaijan.

Methods: Clinical features, C-peptide, autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and islet antigen 2 (IA-2)), and HLA-DRB1 status were studied in 106 subjects <18 years of age who were recently diagnosed. 104 cases were consecutive. Incidence was determined for Baku and Absheron regions, where ascertainment is estimated to be essentially 100%.

Results: 104 of the 106 (98%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, one with type 2 diabetes and one with atypical diabetes. Type 1 diabetes incidence in Baku City and Absheron was 7.05 per 100,000 population <15 years per year. Peak age of onset was 10 years. There was a slight male preponderance (male:female 1.17:1), and no temporal association with seasons. Almost all type 1 diabetes subjects presented with classic symptoms including a high incidence (58%) of diabetic ketoacidosis. 86% presented with low C-peptide values (<0.13 nmol/L, <0.40 ng/mL) and 74% were positive for at least one type 1 diabetes-related autoantibody.

Conclusions: Azerbaijan has a moderate type 1 diabetes incidence and clinical, biochemical and genetic features similar to that in European populations.

Keywords: Autoimmunity; Azerbaijan; Childhood diabetes; HLA; Incidence.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Azerbaijan / epidemiology
  • Biomarkers / analysis*
  • C-Peptide / blood*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / pathology
  • Female
  • HLA-DRB1 Chains / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Male

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • C-Peptide
  • HLA-DRB1 Chains